Populations of F. It is possible that Lake Brazos does not represent a barrier to F. Pandale Crossing is also a sport- fishing area, and populations are established along the Pecos River for at least 50 km below this point; again bait release may have been the means of establishment.
The Starr Co. The single specimen of F. Brock, V. The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters. International Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie Crego, G. Salinity tolerance of four ecologically distinct species of Fundulus Pisces: Fundulidae from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science Hillis, L. Milstead, and S. Inland records of Fundulus grandis Cyprinodontidae in Texas. Hubbs, C. Edwards, and G. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Texas, with key to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43 4 Lee, D.
Gilbert, C. Hocutt, R. Jenkins, D. McAllister, and J. Stauffer, Jr. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. Ley, J. Montague and C. Bulletin of Marine Science Maciolek, J. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. Pages in W. Courtenay, Jr. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. Mundy, B. Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago.
Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology, Number 6. Page, L. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume Randall, J. Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 41 2 Relyea, K. A systematic study of two species complexes of the genus Fundulus Pisces: Cyprinodontidae. Ross, S. Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi. Rozas, L. A comparison of the diets of Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis Baird and Girard, entering and leaving a Mississippi brackish marsh.
Estuaries Robins, C. Ray, and J. A field guide to Atlantic Coast fishes of North America. The Peterson Guide Series, volume Sublette, J. Hatch, and M. The fishes of New Mexico. The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin.
It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. A beginner may not have the controls necessary to assure that the proper temperature is maintained and thus try to hatch the eggs either too soon or too late. I feel it is better to start with some non annual killies, breed and raise fry and then try annuals. In addition, I have not kept or raised many annual killies and could not provide much sound advice. If you are determined to try annuals, I suggest Cynolebias now Simsonicthys whitei as an excellent annual killifish for a beginner.
Non annual killies include some of the most colorful of freshwater fish, equaling many of the salt water fish in beauty. If conditions are right, they will lay a few to many eggs every day. Eggs typically take 2 to 3 weeks to develop and hatch.
Killie fry are not like fry of many other fish in that they are hatched free swimming and looking for food immediately. They are in relatively hard egg shell membranes and consume all egg nutrients prior to breaking out of the egg shell. This is probably one of the biggest reasons killies are not commonly raised or sold commercially. You start with 2 pair of a species, breed them and keep that species generation after generation. If you do not, there is a chance you may not find that species for a long time.
- A Short Guide to killifish World.
- A Short Guide to killifish World!
- Beginners Guide to Killies.
Very few breeders will sell a single sex unless he or she has an excess of that sex. Also postage alone for a replacement can actually exceed the initial cost of a second pair! Although many killies can do well in a community tank, most people who keep killies keep them in tanks isolated by species. At this age, they are too big for their older brothers and sisters to eat and fish of several weeks to a month of age difference can be put together.
When raised together, a natural hierarchy of dominance is established and competition among males is avoided if there is enough room for the fish. Different species of killifish are usually not mixed in the same tank, unless males only are used. If the species are very different, like a species of Epiplatys with a species of Aphyosemion, it is safe to mix them assuming similar size and temperament. Females of many species look very similar and are difficult to distinguish for you and for males. Males will mate with females of different species and produce sterile offspring that in some cases will survive but may look like one of the parent species.
As with purebred dogs, different varieties and different locations of the same species are not mixed since for many hobbyists, purebreds are more desirable. First you need to know a few things. Answers to the following will determine which, if any, killies will work out well for you.
Most Aphyosemion, Epiplatys and Fundulopanchax species are best bred in soft, acidic water. Hardness DH , temperature, and pH 2 Are you willing to use live foods?
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Hatch brine shrimp, raise white worms or daphnia, or restrict yourself to flake or to frozen foods? Buying live foods at the local fish store can get quite expensive. The fish do not mind usually , but the eggs will. If your water is DH 0 to 4 from the tap, you are in very good killie country.
Everything You Need to Know About Killifish
If 6 to 10 DH, many species will still do well many of the Fundulopanchax typically. If much greater than 10 DH, you will probably have to take some measures to provide water more suited for them. AS a very limited supply, store purchased distilled not spring water can be added in small quantities to a breeding tank.
Killies from Africa live in a range of temperature zones. Fortunately, pH is not that difficult to adjust. Some garden variety, sphagnum peat moss not Michigan peat potting soil! A pH in the range of 6 to 7 is usually more than adequate. Many non-annual killies will do well above 7. Some home prepared formulae are excellent, however live food is often necessary for feeding fry since motion attracts them to the food. This is probably true for most all aquarium fish if your intent is to breed them successfully.
Epiplatys species usually prefer to feed at the surface and many will be quite happy with floating foods like flake food and frozen clumps of food which float. Fundulopanchax are typically prone to feed in the middle to bottom of the tank. They are usually larger than Aphyosemions and less shy, so frozen foods usually will be taken.
Many Aphyosemion species are shy and unless very hungry will be hesitant to venture out from cover to seek food that is not moving.
As with all of the above, there are exceptions. As you decide to venture into more and more species, you will be contacting more and more killie keepers. An annual membership is worth the cost if only as a source for a list of AKA members near to you. Additionally affiliate clubs, fish and egg listings, articles on keeping and breeding species and a wealth of information can be on hand for the membership dues. Even easy to breed and raise killies are still a lot of work.
It likely represents absolutely no profit to the seller. Most killie breeders do it as a pleasurable hobby and try to sell their extra fish, to make room for more and to help cover the costs for food for their fish. Such fish are difficult to find. The breeder had to search and probably spend a pile on his initial pair s and does deserve some credit for even making them available, usually at a fraction of his initial purchase cost. Fish of this type should be avoided by the beginner until he or she has some experience that shows success. This can usually be determined once you have answered the questions on water and food supply.
For good beginner fish, usually most Fundulopanchax gardneri varieties are good. They can do well in a wide variety of water conditions and take to frozen foods well. For cooler water, Aphyosemion striatum varieties are a good choice. Talk via phone or e-mail to your potential source. Be prepared to answer the above two questions and to give some measure of your prior aquarium fish experiences.
This will allow the breeder to help you select a species or two for starters. This is very important. In addition, just like people, some individuals are more prolific than others. If you get a single pair and do not have any luck in breeding them, it could be the fish and not you!
Do not be surprised if the breeder will sell only pairs. If he or she offers trios, it is usually only because he has an excess of one sex. Do not expect a breeder to sell you a single sex of a species. In doing so, unless he has an excess of that sex, he is stuck with the mate. Learn what the breeders water chemistry is like and what foods he has been feeding. This is important to prevent early loss of your new fish. If your water does not match his within reason, arrange to receive a bag of his water with the fish. The postage is more, but well worth the cost in ease of acclimation.
Be pleased, if the fish are young possibly only half adult size. Young fish acclimate much better and you are much more likely to have success with them. Good breeders will not typically sell older killifish. A large pair may be young but well nourished.
Any non annual 4 months to a year of age is reasonable. Some colder water killies do take a year to mature, but these will probably not be good beginners killies anyway. In my experience it is usually beneficial to have a single pair of fish in a breeding tank. A third fish will, in many cases, eat eggs or young of the breeding pair. I have found a reverse trio two males less prone to such behavior than a trio two females.